[ OUT OF STOCK: The current demand for this product has exceeded our sourcing capabilities. For this reason, we are currently only serving existing Grass Fed Collagen customers with refills. If you'd like to be notified when we have plenty to go 'round, send us an email, we'll put you at the top of the list (if you ask!). In the meantime, consider our amazing Bovine Tracheal Cartilage (BTC) and pair it with our Bone Marrow... both are rich in bovine-derived cartilage, collagen and proteoglycans. ]

Pro Tip: Nothing beats a homemade bone soup made with skin, hooves and especially the femur bone down to the knuckle's end. A close second is our BTC, Bone Marrow and 10-15 grams of a commercially available, grass fed collagen to get ample amounts of glycine, hydroxyproline and proline. 

 

Grass Fed "Living" Collagen — $58

 

— Proteoglycans are a major component of the animal extracellular matrix, the "filler" substance existing between cells in an organism. Here they form large complexes, both to other proteoglycans and to fibrous matrix proteins, such as collagen. Cartilage is basically made of water, collagen, and proteoglycans, a protein-polysaccharide bond that provides elasticity. [10,11].

Our Grass Fed Collagen is derived from cartilage; it provides all of these nourishing constituents to support joints, bones, cartilage, skin, hair and nails. 

 

NOURISH YOUR WAY TO HEALTH & HAPPINESS WITH GRASS FED "LIVING" COLLAGEN *

For most of human history, Sapiens effortlessly consumed (nose-to-tail) the things we needed for strength, health and happiness. In the modern world, we unknowingly struggle to fulfill our lifestyle and nutritional needs in order to support and sustain a vibrant, disease-free life. We are now part of a world where joints, bones, cartilage and collagenous parts (including skin, hair and nails) struggle to heal and be healthy. I believe that the ultimate solution is a return to ancestral living (see About Us page). 

Whole food, nutrient dense organs, glands and collagen can provide great benefit for those seeking targeted support in harmony with nature — the old fashioned way, the way that our early ancestors did.* Grass Fed "Living" Collagen is a whole food and dietary supplement that provides pure bovine collagen—in a whole food matrix—with all the cartilage and collagen-specific building blocks, peptides and enzymes to nourish and support one's own joints, bones, cartilage and skin, hair and nail health. Our collagen retains ancestral properties that are otherwise absent in the modern world:

 

MODERN DAY COLLAGENS

Modern day commercial collagens are produced from hides, hooves and horns that are otherwise inedible. As such, they are highly processed with high heat, degreasing agents and acids, and end up being far removed from anything resembling the ancestral "living" collagen that our DNA evolved with... these are the raw materials that our DNA still expects today to express healthy and vibrant joints, bones, cartilage, collagen, blood vessels and of course — skin, hair and nails. Don’t get me wrong… commercial collagen peptides are awesome… they just happen to be only one of the 5 major players that bone broth (and our "Living" Collagen) are one of the most nourishing foods in existence.

 

WE EVOLVED EATING MINIMALLY PROCESSED "LIVING" COLLAGEN...

Grass Fed Ancestral Collagen is produced from the cartilaginous parts from the innards of the animal (bovine) including the trachea and scapula. The processing you'll find here is simple enough... we use an all natural protease enzyme to remove non-cartilage material, then we freeze-dry it. That's it! As such, our collagen retains ancestral properties in a whole-food matrix that are otherwise absent in the modern world:

  • Typical Amino Acids That You'd Expect From Collagen — Glycine, Hydroxyproline & Proline
  • Trachea-Derived Collagen; Rich In Type II Collagen
  • Scapula-Derived Collagen; Rich In Type II Collagen
  • Bone-Derived Collagen; Type I, II, III
  • Bioactive Growth Factors
  • Molecular Biodirectors
  • Glycosaminoglycans Proteoglycans — The Filler Between The Cells... Keeps Cells From Sagging
  • Chondroitin Sulfates — Lubricate Joints
  • Range of Trace Minerals

 

BIOACTIVE GROWTH FACTORS

In addition to some of the typical amino acids that you expect in collagen (glycine, hydroxyproline and proline), our Grass Fed "Living" Collagen is teeming with bioactive growth factors, including Insulin Like Growth Factor I (IGF I), Transforming Growth Factor ß I (TGFßI) and Cartilage Derived Growth Factor (CDGF). 

The growth factors are a diverse group of proteins with a myriad of biological functions within the body. As proteins, they are sensitive to manufacturing processes, however our gentle processing techniques help to preserve these delicate entities within our finished product.

IGF-I may have a dual benefit on compromised cartilage. Work by Neidel et al (1994) demonstrated that IGF-I partially prevented the inhibition of cartilage proteoglycan synthesis caused by Interleukin I (IL-1). In addition to this beneficial effect on the extracellular matrix, the growth factor actually accelerated recovery of proteoglycan production, after the free IL-1 was withdrawn.

Furthermore, it has been established that TGF ß significantly increases the levels of chondroitin sulphate chains in proteoglycans, as shown by Rapraeger (1989)

 

MOLECULAR BIODIRECTORS

According to the Godfather of cartilage therapy, Dr. John F. Prudden, “bovine cartilage closely resembles fetal mesenchyme, the primordial tissue from which muscle, bone, tendons, ligaments, skin, fat and bone marrow (the heart of the immune system) all develop.” “The cartilage”, he adds, “contains numerous powerful molecular biodirectors. These have a potent normalizing effect in human biology."[5]

 

PROTEOGLYCANS | GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS

In the 1930s Francis Pottenger, Jr., a noted pioneer in the field who applied the findings and principles of Weston Price, concluded that the healing power of bone broth came from its hydrophilic, water-loving nature. Every pot of properly made broth is full of huge, water-trapping molecules known as proteoglycans.

Proteoglycans are a major component of the animal extracellular matrix, the "filler" substance existing between cells in an organism. Here they form large complexes, both to other proteoglycans, to hyaluronan, and to fibrous matrix proteins, such as collagen. Cartilage is basically made of water, collagen, and proteoglycans, a protein-polysaccharide bond that provides elasticity. 

Grass Fed "Living" Collagen is also rich in glycosaminoglycans which maintain and support collagen, elastin and turgidity (bounce) in the cellular spaces and keep protein fibers in balance and proportion. Glycosaminoglycans are also linked to the lymphatic system.[6]

Chondroitin sulphate is a part of the group of compounds known as glycosaminoglycans (GAG). In cartilage, chondroitin sulphate as part of the larger proteoglycan molecule aggrecan is held within a meshwork of type II collagen fibrils. This meshwork is flexible, and due to the highly negatively charged nature of the GAG molecules holds many times is own weight in water. It is this arrangement that gives fully functional, healthy cartilage its resistance to compression.

 

100% NEW ZEALAND

  • Pasture Raised In New Zealand
  • Grass-fed & Grass-Finished
  • Hormone, Pesticide & GMO Free
  • Absolutely No Fillers (or) Flow Agents
  • 100% Freeze Dried & Non-Defatted
  • Third Party Tested For Purity
  • Allergen Free

 

New Zealand

— Our product is 100% sourced in New Zealand. In agricultural circles, it's known that the clean air, green pastures, and animal husbandry is at a higher level —

Ultra Pure

— Our product is 100% pure... This means that you won't see any of the extra stuff that most supplement companies include to save time and money (stearates, silica, etc) —

Freeze Dried

— Our product is 100% freeze dried in contrast to the heat processed varieties. This means that you get more of the heat sensitive vitamins, minerals and co-factors that make organ meats so incredibly nourishing —

Safety

— There has never been a case of mad cow disease in New Zealand. BSE (mad cow disease), scrapie and other known TSE’s, do not occur in New Zealand. A national surveillance programme is in place to provide comprehensive monitoring —

 

CONSIDER THE SOURCE

New Zealand seems like it was made for raising healthy animals. Its location and climate produce pristine conditions for cattle and sheep, and the farmers have uncanny expertise handed down for generations. New Zealand is unique among meat-producing regions in the world because its climate is moderate so the grass in the pastures grows fresh and grows green year-round which means the cows and sheep can eat the food that’s healthiest for them every day of the year.

Our nose-to-tail product line is always from grassfed, inspected animals born and raised without the use of pesticides, hormones or antibiotics. Health of livestock used for manufacturing in New Zealand is closely monitored by a world leading biosecurity system that is second to none, and is a global exemplar. Strict government licensing, auditing and certification procedures mean that our genuine New Zealand freeze dried products can be used with complete confidence in their origin, safety and efficacy. Freeze-drying preserves the heat sensitive vitamins, minerals and co-factors of components leaving the nutrients in the same balance as found in nature.

 

* Our product line is 100% additive-free. Absolutely no stearates, lubricants, binders, fillers or flow agents... except with our Bone Marrow (see Other Ingredients) *

  

SUPPLEMENT FACTS

  • Serving Size: 6 Capsules
  • Servings Per Container: 30

AMOUNT PER CAPSULE

Freeze-Dried New Zealand Grassfed Cartilage (Bovine) 500MG

 

  • Trachea-Derived Collagen
  • Scapula-Derived Collagen
  • Bone-Derived Collagen
  • Bioactive Growth Factors
  • Glycosaminoglycans
  • Proteoglycans
  • Chondroitin Sulfates
  • Trace Minerals

OTHER INGREDIENTS: Collagen (Beef Gelatin) Capsules

SUGGESTED USE: Six capsules daily or as directed by a healthcare professional.

MANUFACTURED IN THE USA: ANCESTRAL SUPPLEMENTS, LLC

* FDA STATEMENT: These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.

 
 
 
 
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BENEFITS OF Grass Fed "Living" Collagen

Traditional peoples, Native Americans and early ancestral healers believed that eating the organs from a healthy animal would strengthen and support the health of the corresponding organ of the individual. For instance, the traditional way of treating a person with a weak heart was to feed the person the heart of a healthy animal. Similarly, eating the kidneys of a healthy animal was believed to support urinary ailments and overall kidney health... Pancreas was fed to people with digestive and endocrine problems...[7] trachea, scapula, marrow-rich bones and other cartilaginous parts provided concentrated amounts of connective tissue, collagen and other proteins that are now missing from the modern diet.

Many of our modern day functional practitioners use our Grass Fed "Living" Collagen to support joints, bones, cartilage and skin. A common protocol is to combine this product with our Grass Fed Liver (or BTC) and Grass Fed Bone Marrow. If one needs more type I collagen support, a commercial collagen is included to the tune of 10-15 grams per day. 

 Dr. Royal Lee, and other early nutritional pioneers, believed the degenerative processes of a specific organ / gland could be reversed by ingesting the corresponding raw materials specific to that organ / gland.7

 

GRASS FED COLLAGEN & LIVER — THE ULTIMATE SUPERFOODS

Whether from grassfed beef, bison, or lamb, grass fed liver is one of the most nutrient-dense, health promoting foods you could possibly eat. Hunters all over the world, for uncounted thousands of years, would eat the raw livers of the animals they killed. Lions and other predatory animals will also eat the liver first. Grass fed liver is particularly rich in vitamin B12, vitamin A, choline, folate and and many other powerful nutrients that most people are deficient in. Grass fed liver also contains compounds that help the human liver function better. Other substances in liver reduce fatigue, improve digestive health and support brain function.*1

Many people look to targeted support "like heals like" while neglecting the very fundamental nourishment that governs our biology, health and well-being. It's no wonder that so many people successfully support organ and glandular related health conditions (thyroid, adrenal and gut included) by just nourishing their bodies with the fundamentals — Liver and Bone Marrow.*  

 

WISDOM BACKED BY SCIENCE

Organs and glandulars were a staple of our early ancestors' diets as the ultimate superfood, for good reason. It turns out, this nourishing tradition is backed by science... "Radioisotope labeling studies in animals have shown conclusively that, when eaten, organs and glands selectively travel to the corresponding organs and glands in high concentrations. This research, done at the University of Scotland in Edinburgh, lends credence to the ancient practice of eating animal organs to help ensure health in one’s corresponding organs..." - Dr. Ron Schmid, ND.*[8] Our early ancestors knew this, which is why their traditional diets included the frequent and nourishing consumption of nose-to-tail nutrients.

— Powerful effects on wound healing, autoimmune conditions, joint health and other conditions considered to be treatment resistant to conventional therapies *[1,2,3,4] —

— Contains numerous powerful molecular biodirectors and immunoregulators to balance and regulate a health promoting response to a given stimulus *[5] —

— All the building blocks for connective tissue and cartilage... glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans, chondroitin sulfates and type II collagen *[6] —

 

Grass Fed "Living" Collagen CONTAINS...

  • Typical Amino Acids That You'd Expect From Collagen — Glycine, Hydroxyproline & Proline
  • Trachea-Derived Collagen; Rich In Type II Collagen
  • Scapula-Derived Collagen; Rich In Type II Collagen
  • Bone-Derived Collagen; Type I, II, III
  • Bioactive Growth Factors; IGF-I, TGFßI & Cartilage Derived Growth Factor (CDGF)
  • Molecular Biodirectors
  • Glycosaminoglycans | Proteoglycans
  • Chondroitin Sulfates — Lubricate Joints Range Of Trace Minerals

[NOTE: Proteoglycans are a major component of the animal extracellular matrix, the "filler" substance existing between cells in an organism. Here they form large complexes, both to other proteoglycans, to hyaluronan, and to fibrous matrix proteins, such as collagen. Cartilage is basically made of water, collagen, and proteoglycans, a protein-polysaccharide bond that provides elasticity.] [10,11]

 

Grass Fed "Living" Collagen SUPPORTS... 

  • Optimal Joints, Bones, Cartilage & Skin, Hair and Nail Health Based On "Like Supports Like" *
  • Healing, Immune Health And Joint Health *
  • The Filler Between The Cells... Keeps Cells From Sagging
  • Treatment Response In Conditions Considered To Be Treatment Resistant *
  • Connective Tissue And Digestive Health *[9]

 [NOTE: Grass Fed "Living" Collagen’s anti-inflammatory effects make it especially useful for joint disorders. However, it has also been shown to be very effective in inflammatory conditions of the gut.] [9]

 

SUGGESTED USE (6 CAPSULES A DAY)

Our Grass Fed Collagen is a whole food dietary supplement that provides Grass Fed "Living" Collagen within the ultimate food matrix. This supplement can be taken with (or) without food (even though it technically is food). The suggested use is 6 capsules a day or as directed by a healthcare professional — for added support, the dose can be doubled or tripled. If consuming more than six capsules at once, the doses should be separated by at least three hours to improve tolerability.

As it relates to little ones, our Ancestral Supplements are 100% pure and they're encapsulated in 100% pure bovine gelatin. Since we do not add any stearates, lubricants, binders, fillers or flow agents, (except with our Bone Marrow; see Other Ingredients), our products contain all the natural nourishing properties of grass fed organs as they exist in harmony with nature. In other words, if you would consider preparing homemade liver and onions (or) a homemade organ meat paté for little one, our supplements would be no different — it's just food, whole-food at that!

In fact, many of our customers give our products to their babies, toddlers and teens... many email and post reviews about it, including one that notes that she gives her kid half the recommended dose for an anemia-related issue. Another reviewer remarks about our Thymus, at 1-2 capsules a day, is the only thing that works for her son's "angry" eczema. Even a new mom states that she opens the capsule and blends our liver into a homemade Weston A Price formula to give her baby a head start. As long as the little ones tolerate beef products without incident, you would just be giving a convenient source of ancestral nourishment.

As it relates to dosing, most of our functional healthcare practitioner accounts suggest 1 capsule for every 15-20 pounds of body weight. I always tell people that I put the care, attention and quality assurance into my products as if I am giving them to my family... because I am! My young boys, wife and I all take the Beef Liver, Beef Organs and Bone Marrow everyday.

Pro Tip: Add 10-15 grams of commercial collagen and bioavailable vitamin C (I like acerola cherries or a good powder will do). Why you ask... proline hydroxylation requires ascorbic acid (vitamin C). The most obvious, first effects (gingival and hair problems) of absence of ascorbic acid in humans come from the resulting defect in hydroxylation of proline residues of collagen, with reduced stability of the collagen molecule, causing scurvy and sub-clinical scurvy-like symptoms with bleeding gums, hair loss, skin issues and such. 

  

POTENTIAL ISSUES (DETOX REACTION)

Most customers tolerate our supplements without incident; however, approximately 5 to 10% of customers (usually with an autoimmune condition) may experience a detoxification reaction. Detoxification reactions go by many different names including healing reactions, healing crises, cleansing reactions (or) Herxheimer reactions with hallmark symptoms of nausea, headache, lethargy, dizziness and other flu like symptoms. In this instance, detoxification reactions are generally an indication that detoxification pathways in the body are back online... cells suddenly have an opportunity to release an even greater than normal quantity of stored toxins, metabolic wastes, pathogens and unwanted material. 

A detoxification reaction is more likely to occur when starting with the full suggested serving size of 6 capsules per day. If you know that you are sensitive to supplements and/or you have an autoimmune condition, you may wish to start slow when adding this product to your current regimen. Tolerability can be greatly improved by starting with just 1 (or) 2 capsules a day and increasing by just 1 capsule every couple of days — this method may take a full few weeks to achieve the desired serving size of 6 capsules per day.

If you know that you're ulta sensitive to supplements, email us and we'll do everything we can to help.

 

high quality ORGANS, GLANDS & COLLAGENS

Okay, you're convinced! You're going to start incorporating nose-to-tail nourishment in your routine because, well... you're educated now... you understand, just as our early ancestors did, that they provide superlative health benefits that are missing in our modern diets. The next step is sourcing it. It's important that you source the highest quality because not all organs, glands and cartilage are created equal. Consider the source. 

  • Should Come From An Unpolluted Geographical Region — Isolated, Healthy, Pristine Lands 
  • Should Come From Pasture Raised Animals
  • Should Come From Grass-Fed & Grass-Finished Animals
  • Should Come From Animals That Are Hormone, Pesticide & GMO Free
  • Should Also Be Ultra Pure... Absolutely No Fillers (or) Flow Agents, No Allergens
  • Should Be Non-Defatted (if applicable)
  • Should Be 100% Freeze Dried... Freeze Drying Preserves Heat Sensitive Biological Activity (or) Low-Heat Rendered As Is The Case w/ Our Tallow

new zealand grassfed beef liver

SUGGESTED SUPPLEMENTS (3)

If you're going to pick just one ancestral supplement to start with, make it our GRASS FED BEEF LIVER... unless you need targeted support with another specific organ system (see below). If you are going to pick two supplements, our GRASS FED BEEF LIVER and our GRASS FED BEEF ORGANS provide complementary and synergistic nourishment. If you can add a third supplement, GRASS FED BONE MARROW fills fat soluble nutrition gaps and provides the fat soluble activators that nutrition giant Dr. Weston Price extensively wrote about.

  • Grass Fed Beef Liver
  • Grass Fed Beef Organs (liver, heart, kidney, pancreas, spleen)
  • Grass Fed Bone Marrow

On the other hand, if you're looking for targeted organ support, you may be interested in our GRASS FED BEEF HEART to support heart health (or) our GRASS FED THYROID to support a struggling thyroid (or) our GRASS FED THYMUS to support thymus function and immune health... you get the picture.* We have a nose-to-tail product line that can be found on our "Products" page. If you can't find what you're looking for (or) you're not sure what you're looking for, send us an email and we'll do everything we can to help.

 

Grass Fed "Living" Collagen Summary

Our genome has evolved with the nourishment of nose-to-tail dining since the beginning of time. Grassfed Collagen is a whole food and dietary supplement that provides 100% pure Grass Fed "Living" Collagen containing powerful biodirectors, immunoregulars, glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans, chondroitin sulfates and type II collagen with bioactive "living" growth factors. These nourishing compounds support healing, immune and joint health along with treatment resistant conditions.* Based on the concept of "like supports like," Grass Fed "Living" Collagen may strengthen and support our own connective tissue, joints, bones, cartilage and skin, hair and nail health.*

Not all organs and glands are the same. Look for the highest quality Grass Fed "Living" Collagen... It should come from pasture-raised, grass-fed and grass-finished animals that are hormone, pesticide and GMO free. If considering a supplement, look for one that is ultra pure (without binders, fillers (or) flow agents) and look for the freeze dried variety as these have been shown to optimally preserve nutritional factors, growth factors and co-factors.

[ FACT: There has never been a case of mad cow disease in New Zealand. BSE (mad cow disease), scrapie and other known TSE’s, do not occur in New Zealand. A national surveillance programme is in place to provide comprehensive monitoring. ]

We care deeply about each and every aspect of our "seed to supplement" business... great love and gratitude goes out to the souls of these beautiful creatures that sacrificed their lives so that we could be nourished.

 

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Sources and References 

  1. Wound Healing - http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/655461
  2. Autoimmune / Immune - http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/act.1995.1.187?journalCode=act
  3. Joint Health - https://www.google.com/patents/US4212857 ????
  4. Failed Treatment Responders - http://nourishingbroth.com/articles/dr-pruddens-31-cases-treating-cancer-with-bovine-tracheal-cartilage/
  5. https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/How-bovine-tracheal-cartilage-stimulates-the-immun-/d16f4396e400ac6058b5ab61d897cbda52fe3b7d
  6.  https://www.truthinaging.com/ingredients/glycosaminoglycans
  7. Fishman, Stanley A. "The Benefits of Organ Meats." Tender Grassfed Meat. N.p., 09 Dec. 2014. Web. 17 June 2017.
  8. "Spleen, 500mg, 180 Capsules." Dr. Ron's Ultra-Pure. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 June 2017.
  9. http://www.bruceharper.co.nz/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/Cartrin.pdf
  10. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proteoglycan
  11. http://www.marksdailyapple.com/how-to-feed-train-and-care-for-cartilage/
  12. Lee R, Hanson W. Protomorphology: The Principles of Cell Auto-Regulation. Lee Foundation for Nutritional Research, Milwaukee, 1947
  13. Lee R. Therapeutic Food Manual, Lee Foundation for Nutritional Research, Milwaukee, circa 1950;14Lee R. Brain Cytotrophin. Lee Foundation for Nutritional Research, Milwaukee, circa 1950
  14. Profiles in Nutritional Progress. Rubicon Productions, Bakersfield, 1993
  15. Blake, Paul. “Serious Brain Enhancer.” Serious Brain Enhancer TM, www.theherbprof.com/FoodResearch/drSeriousBrain.htm. Accessed 27 Aug. 2017.
  16. Cenacchi T, et al. Cognitive decline in the elderly: a double-blind placebo-controlled multicenter study on the efficacy of phosphatidylserine administration. Aging Clin Exp Res 5:123-133, 1993
  17. Null G. The Complete Encyclopedia of Natural Healing. Kensington Books, 1998
  18. Harrower HR. An Endocrine Handbook. Harrow Laboratory, Glendale, 1939
  19. Fallon, Sally. “Guts and Grease: The Diet of Native Americans.” The Weston A. Price Foundation, 1 Jan. 2000, www.westonaprice.org/health-topics/traditional-diets/guts-and-grease-the-diet-of-native-americans/. Accessed 27 Aug. 2017.
  20. Mercola, Joseph. “Ketogenic diet: the perfect meal plan that can supercharge your body's fat-Burning process.” Mercola.com, articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2016/09/26/nutritional-ketosis-benefits.aspx. Accessed 27 Aug. 2017.
  21. Mercola, Joseph. “Burning Fat for Fuel Increases Quality and Quantity of Life.” Mercola.com, articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2017/04/24/burning-fat-for-fuel.aspx. Accessed 27 Aug. 2017.
  22. Sisson, Mark. “The Fat Burning Brain: What Are the Cognitive Effects of Ketosis?” Mark's Daily Apple, 1 Sept. 2016, www.marksdailyapple.com/the-fat-burning-brain-what-are-the-cognitive-effects-of-ketosis/. Accessed 27 Aug. 2017.
  23. Cunnane, SC, et al. “BRAIN FUEL METABOLISM, AGING AND ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE.” Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.), U.S. National Library of Medicine, Jan. 2011, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3478067/. Accessed 27 Aug. 2017.
  24. Gasior, Maciej, et al. “Neuroprotective and disease-Modifying effects of the ketogenic diet.” Behavioural pharmacology, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Sept. 2006, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2367001/. Accessed 27 Aug. 2017.